Experts from each university will work together initially across three shared research areas: clinical trials and training, biomaterials and digital textual editing.
The two universities will also create exchange opportunities through a student mobility agreement allowing Birmingham students to spend time studying at Dublin, and vice-versa.
The agreement was signed at a special ceremony by Trinity College Dublin Provost Patrick Prendergast and University of Birmingham vice-chancellor Prof Sir David Eastwood.
Dr Prendergast said:
"I am delighted to announce Trinity College Dublin’s collaboration with the University of Birmingham.
"Advances are made through partnership with others. It is partnerships that have enabled Trinity to enhance its global standing as a place of learning giving equality of opportunity to all with the talent and ambition to succeed.
"I look forward to working closely with the University of Birmingham over the coming months, to strengthening our research links and building our student exchange programmes at such a critical time for both our countries."
Prof Eastwood added:
"Europe continues to be a region of key importance for the University of Birmingham – in both research and education.
"As a major strand in our global engagement strategy, we are building and strengthening partnerships with priority institutions across the EU, and are delighted to agree this key partnership with TCD.
"We are proud to join Trinity College Dublin in a partnership between two internationally leading universities built on our complementary strengths.
"We believe our collaboration will produce high-profile research with global impact, as well as excellent opportunities for students in Ireland and the UK as the importance of UK-Irish Higher Education engagement continues to grow."